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Closed-circuit television (CCTV) is the use of video cameras to transmit a signal to a specific place, limited set of monitors. It differs from broadcast television in that the signal is not openly transmitted, though it may employ point to point wireless links. CCTV is often used for surveillance in areas that may need monitoring such as banks, casinos, airports, military installations and convenience stores.
Closed-circuit television camera.
CCTV cameras can produce images or recordings for surveillance purposes, and can be either video cameras, or digital stills cameras.
Each camera had its own monitor. One camera, one monitor.CCTV systems were introduced in the US and the UK during the 60s and 70s.CCTV systems are over a thousand times more advanced than the basic camera and monitor configurations that first appeared in the 1960s. Systems from the 60s were basic, consisting of very low resolution black and white cameras connected by coaxial cable. Each camera was connected to a black and white monitor. A 16 camera configuration required 16 monitors. New applications of camera security systems include: underground trains and stations, sports stadiums, retail stores, shopping centers, public facilities, community parks, garages and parking lots.
The image sensor of the camera is responsible for transforming light into electrical signals. When building a camera, there are two possible technologies for the camera's image sensor:
- CCD (Charged Coupled Device)
- CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor)
Digital cameras have become extremely common as the prices have come down. One of the drivers behind the falling prices has been the introduction of CMOS image sensors. CMOS sensors are much less expensive to manufacture than CCD sensors.
This is the first article in the "Understanding CCTV Series….". In this series, we try and cover some of the important CCTV components and try and explain some of the issues in simple user friendly language. These articles are abstracts from STAM InSight - The Award Winning CCTV Program on CD ROM, which has many innovative CCTV tools for skill and productivity enhancement.
We start the series with cameras. Cameras is the starting point of the video signal and is therefore a critical component of a CCTV system. The word camera comes from the Latin " camara obscura" and means "dark chamber". Artists in the middle ages used a dark box to trace images. Since then the camera has come a long way. Today there are three types of cameras most commonly used.
This article is part of the "Understanding CCTV Series" and is an abstract from STAM InSight - The Complete CCTV Program on CD-ROM for Staff Training and Productivity Enhancement.
In this article we will discuss the video signal which is the basic electrical signal which starts at the camera and goes to the control room via a transmission system. In CCTV this signal is called Composite Video. It has a maximum amplitude of 1 volt peak to peak. We explain the different components of the composite video signal and the purpose of each.